All responses are to be substantive, showing critical thinking. They must also be free from grammatical and spelling error. Here are the guidelines:
– Responses must be in paragraph format, labeled and be interactive to promote further discussion unless the activity requires otherwise;

– Responses must demonstrate critical thinking and be fully justified;
– Use resources from any assigned course material;
– Use APA formatting for any in-text citations and references.
Activity #1Based on the reading from Cameron and Quinn, discuss the difference between culture and climate.
Activity #2 – Value Clusters Search the Web and compare at least five companies’ slogans. Briefly state what value cluster is represented in the advertising. For example:
Kentucky Fried Chicken – We do chicken right! Value Cluster – Efficiency
CommentaryIdeology and Organizational CultureAs discussed in module 1, organizations’ cultures emerge from attempts to manage uncertainties/ambiguities, create some degree of order, and form a good impression while doing all of this.People in organizations develop cultures as they interact and share ways of managing and coping with uncertainties. Cultures have two components:• Substance—which consists of shared systems of beliefs, values, and norms• Forms—which are observable ways that members of a culture express their ideasThe substance of an organization’s culture is its ideologies. Ideologies are shared, inter-related sets of beliefs about how things work; values that indicate what’s worth having or doing; and norms that tell people how they should behave.When beliefs, values, and norms develop over time into the relatively stable, unified, and coherent clusters that comprise ideologies, they provide casual models for explaining and legitimating collective and individual behaviors. Ideologies explain and justify existing social and organizational systems in ways that make them seem natural, logically compelling, and morally acceptable.The Protestant Ethic is a classic example of a particular ideology’s influence on organizational culture. The major characteristics of the Protestant Ethic are:• accumulation of tangible goods (money, wealth) as evidence of God’s favor through unremitting hard work in a secular calling• wealth not accrued for lavish spending on one’s self, but rather for the further accumulation of more wealthDo you agree with those who say that the Protestant Ethic has laid the foundations of modern capitalism in corporate America? This belief system carries with it associated values favoring individualism and individual success and norms prescribing hard work and achievement as acceptable routes to success. Such a belief system seems to be so strong in our corporate life that not to believe so carries serious consequences and sanctions. It certainly gives meaning to many of corporate America’s economic behaviors. Companies go to great lengths to manage impressions of wealth, success, and growth, which is the embodiment of the Protestant Ethic.How Value Clusters Affect American Corporate CultureCertain value clusters reflect major ideological themes of American corporate culture. These clusters are arranged in dominant and subordinate (subculture) importance according to their pervasiveness, duration, the intensity with which they are pursued and maintained, and the prestige of those who express and behave according to them. They are:Competitive Achievement, Work, Efficiency, and RationalityThis first cluster emphasizes the importance of personal achievement within the context of strenuous work and unremitting competition. However, this ideology does not encompass the complete range of one’s personal achievements; only those that are practical, tangible accomplishments. Would you not agree that American culture has historically given action/work a central place in its ethics and values?The values of efficiency and practicality (rationality) are closely allied. Getting things done is an American motto. Having one’s actions regarded as impractical is a stigma. In general, Americans value rational and immediate action over intellectual and aesthetic concerns, especially in the workplace.IndividualismThis cluster emphasizes the supreme importance of self. American culture places extraordinary importance on the individual personality/self, one’s individual rights, freedom of the individual from excessive social or organizational controls, and on the basic presumption of equality among individuals.Progress and MaterialismThe third cluster of American dominant values centers around the inevitability of progress in the human condition such as the tangible expression of the value placed on high levels of material comfort. The pursuit of happiness, leisure, personal fulfillment, and ownership of “things” drives American society from Wall Street and Rodeo Drive to Main Street U.S.A. To strive for promotions and raises at work in pursuit of personal comfort and gain are believed to keep the wheels of progress turning.HumanitarianismThis fourth cluster is seen as being in conflict with the first. Humanitarianism expresses strong moral concerns and favors helping others rather than letting them fend for themselves. Employee Assistance Programs are examples of humanitarianism in the workplace.EthnocentrismThe fifth and final cluster concerns the ethnocentric flavor of American culture. Ethnocentrism is the tendency to judge other cultures by using one’s own culture as a standard. In that regard, all cultures are ethnocentric to some degree. However, many believe that American culture tends to be particularly ethnocentric. Would you agree that America has its own unique brand of ethnocentrism?Manifestations of Values/Ideologies in U.S. Corporate CultureValues provide the ideological context within which U.S. organizations operate. The following elements are manifestations of the aforementioned value clusters:• rationality and science• egalitarianism• performance-oriented management• Social Darwinism• industrial betterment• scientific management• human relations• quality of work life• Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs)Cultural FormsForms are observable ways in which culture is expressed. Chapter 2 in your textbook established that ideologies are the emotional sets of beliefs, values, and norms that the substance of organization’s cultures. Chapter 3 defines cultural forms as those concrete manifestations of culture. They are observable entities through which members of a culture express, affirm, and communicate their cultural substance. Your textbook lists them as:• s