Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection (CLABSIs) in a fatal infection that results from bacteria or viruses entering the bloodstream through the central line. A central line, also known as a central venous catheter (CVC), refers to a tube used by doctors to administer medication, fluids or to collect blood from the body of a patient (Deason & Gray, 2018).

Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection is one of the leading causes of deaths each year in different countries across the globe. Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection has been an area of interest for many healthcare researchers representing a diverse body of knowledge about the infection while still expanding on what is already known. The paper is an analysis of articles related to CLABSIs with the major themes of concern to the authors including risk factors, interventions, CLABSIs and Hospital Acquired Infections (HAIs), benefits of the preventive measures and the common symptoms of CLABSIs. There were 200 articles that were established to talk about the CVCscatheter, CLABSIs, risk factors, intervention, and benefits of preventive measures. Through inclusion and exclusion criteria many journal articles , wereere left out because of being written in other languages rather than English. Therefore, the use of the English language index the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) was used to search related ,journal articles. Other search tools include The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) – PubMed. Studies older than five years were excluded to ensure that the research remained current and up to date. Using real-time cases or conditions helps to improve the quality and validity of the resulted research. having done years ranging from 2012 and backwards, and lacking openness to the public. Therefore, 29 were used in the study.

Questions Posed in the Studies

Afonso, Blot, & Blot (2016) seeks to establish how hospital-acquired bloodstream infections can be prevented through the use of chlorhexidine gluconate-impregnated washcloth bathing in intensive care units. In the study by Chidambaram (2015), the question raised is, what associations dental procedure and CVCs have. Kadium, M. (2015) inquired into how the education program for one month, based on the evidence-based guidelines recommended by CDC, will improve registered dialysis nurses’ knowledge regarding CVC maintenance care? Dougherty (20142) questions the potential solutions in reducing incidences of central-line associated bloodstream infections have to be created in line with the clinical setting and careful consideration of the patients and the organizational culture. Lin, Apisarnthanarak, Jaggi, Harrington, Morikane, Thu, Ching, Villanueva, Zong, Jeong, & Lee , (2015), and Esposito, Guillari & Angelillo (2017) concur..

O’Grady, Alexander, Burns, Delilnger, Garland, Heard, Lipsett, Masur, Mermel, Pearson, Raad, Randolph, Rupp, & Saint (20151), the inquiry focused into how Positive blood culture shows the relationship between CLABSI and CDC surveillance. Other researchers inquire into the CLABSI-related preventive measures implemented among adult patients hospitalized in an ICU. Such studies are by people like Perin, Erdmann, Higashi, Sasso, Bianco, et al. (2016), Masse, Edmond, & Diekema (2018), Oliveira, Stipp, Silva, Frederico, & Duarte (2016). In a research by Basinger, (2014), the research question questions into the causal effects of the Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Programs (CUSP) on the reduction of CLABSIs within the relationship CUSP team member webinar attendance has with the reduction of CLASBIs. Other questions were on how knowledge and education of the family and patient could help in the prevention of CLABSIs attack. Among such studies are; Kadium, (2015) and Powell (2018).

Other studies focused on how evidence-based practice, insertion, and maintenance of CVC could protect the patients from CLABSIs. Such research was done by Bianco, Coscarelli, Nobile, Pileggi, & Pavia (20143), WHO (2018) and Xu & Wu (2017). The final research is by Han, Liang, & Marschall, (20150), who question how the involvement of education to the family and the patient can help prevent CLABSIs attacks among patients on CVC care. Another study by Yazan & Regunath (2018) questions examines the relationships between Positive blood culture and CLABSI with CDC.

Identified Subthemes

From this, there are various subthemes that emerge in this study. These include; Hygiene and impact of this on the CVC situation. Most studies show that the more hygiene is considered and practiced, the lower the cases of CLABSI. Another concept is the knowledge that is necessary among nurses and patients handling CVC. Through knowledge m the care for CVC improves and infections reduce. Besides, there are Policies which enhance the correct application of knowledge and maintenance of hygiene in the health care, hence decreasreducing cases of infections.

Moreover, nurse experience is an essential subtopic for due to evidence that supports that with higher experience in the CVC wardsunits;, nurses tend to takeadhere and follow ptoticls and precautions and which help prevent infections that those without. Finally, there are Eevidence- Based Practices/Interventions such as proper fitting, disinfection and sterilization, iInsertion bundle, maintenance bundle, and quality improvement.