Chlamydia is a gram-negative, non-motile and coccoid bacteria that acts as a parasite of eukaryotes. The organism is obligate intracellular with no energy synthesizing molecules (ATP) as it lacks the biosynthetic and metabolic pathways. Its interdependence with the host makes it to be mistaken to be a virus. The virion structure of Chlamydia consists of a combination of proteins, RNA and DNA (Byrne, 2010). Moreover, the iodine stain makes the bacterial sample to be more distinct while under Electron microscope analysis.

Virulence factors

Virulence factors are the substances produced by the microorganisms to help in attachment to various surfaces. Chlamydia lacks muramic acid in its cell wall, a characteristic which increases its resistance to antibiotics of the lactam group. To explain this factor, the antibiotics of this group majorly disrupt any typical cell wall with muramic acid included. Moreover, the bacterial cell wall contains lipopolysaccharides that react against the hostÂ’s immune system to cause damage. Chlamydia binds sialic acid receptors embedded in the mucous membrane once inside the host. Too important to note, is the antigen variation factor contained by the bacteria which is known to have 15 serotypes (Byrne, 2010).


The immune system response to chlamydia infections is local and involves relocation of the white blood cells to the infection sites. Additionally, the immune system response plays a vital role in secretion of cytokines and chemokines that are pro-inflammatory in nature. Similarly, the immune cells produce reactive oxygen species that initiate chronic inflammation. Consequently, cell proliferation occurs due to long-term inflammation that could lead to cancer. The autoimmune systems stimulation is directly linked to the long-term inflammation. In light to this, the individual recovering from the multi-drug resistant strain of the bacterium escapes future reinfection. Additionally, the B cells and the CD4+ T cells play a significant role in offering immunity to susceptible individuals (Redgrave & McLaughlin, 2014).

Infectious disease information

The conditions that result to the Chlamydial disease infection include; unprotected oral, vaginal and anal sex with infected individuals. Similarly, mothers have high chances to transmit the disease to their infants during pregnancy, nursing or labor. This is due to failure to adhere to prenatal and postnatal clinical procedures.

Notably, chlamydial infections cause infection of the eye called Trachoma that consequently leads to scarring of the conjunctiva. Additionally, it affects both the vagina and the penis. However, some cases of chlamydial infections affect the throat therefore resulting to blockage of breathing pathways. To sum up all these, the outlined infections damage the ocular system, reproductive system, and upper respiratory systems.

Many detrimental complications arise if chlamydia is left untreated at the early stages. In women, Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) develops and affects the uterus, oviduct and ovaries (Byrne, 2010).In regard to this, there are increased cases of ectopic pregnancies in such women and increased prevalence of infertility.

In men, Urethritis and epididymitis come up in cases of failure to clinically address the situation. However, the infants suffer the most since they can develop pneumonia and can easily result in death. Principally, untreated chlamydial infections cause reactive arthritis to both the women and men groups. The above mentioned infections are therefore chronic in nature and most times they can be fatal. Notably, Chlamydia is one of the most serious opportunistic disease to people with HIV/AIDS.