Give one example of a data collection method used in writing this paper below. What variable was this method used to measure?
Nurse Staffing Ratio
PICOT Que: In Patients Requiring Nursing Care and Attention, How Does Nurse Staffing Ratio Influence Patient Recovery Over Patient Mortality?

The safe staffing of nursing has been proven overtime to improve on the quality of the health care services rendered by nurses to their patients. Every registered nurse can attest to the ever present concerns over staffing issues. The ratio of nurse staffing not only deals with the safety of the patients but also with the nurses. It is very important in both clinical and non-clinical departments. This paper will review literature by (Shekelle, 2013) and (West, et al., 2014) who have done extensive research studies when it comes to nurse staffing ratio, how it affects patient recovery over mortality.
There are recent studies that have been done in order to support staffing models that improve on the ratio of nurses to patients. In the article by (Shekelle, 2013), 232 342 surgical patients in Pennsylvania from different hospitals were included in the study. The study highlighted that of the 232 342 surgical patients, 4 535 died within 30 days of being discharged. The death of this 2% indicates that there was a problem in the after care of the patients. Investigations into this matter revealed that the difference between a 4:1 and 8:1 patient is to nurse ratio may have been a major factor in the death of these patients. As a result, the article went on discuss the role played by nurse-patient ratios.
There is a need for further research to be done in order to find means to achieve a nurse staffing ratio that will lead to high quality. In answering this question, it is also necessary to take into consideration the fact that having more nurse staff might lead to confusion and actually down grade the care rendered to the patient.
In their article Nurse Staffing, Medical Staffing and Mortality in Intensive Care: An Observational Study, scholars (West, et al., 2014) study whether the size of hospital staff (nurses, doctors and support staff) has an impact on the survival chances of critically ill patients both in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and in the hospital. Their results indicate that higher number of nurses per bed are associated with higher survival rates. Furthermore, a separate analysis of in-unit and in-hospital survival showed that the clinical workforce in ICU has a very high impact on ICU mortality compared to hospital mortality.
The article by (West, et al., 2014) indicate that the availability of medical and nursing staff is effective in the survival of ICU patients. As a result, there are further studies that need to be done in order to focus on the resources of the nursing staff. Another urgent matter unraveled by this article indicate that there is a need for more specific and in-depth studies to be done when it comes to nurse staffing ratios.
In as much as there is so much literature to support the evidence of numerous existing studies on the subject of nurse staffing and patient recovery, there is still a lot of work that needs to be done on a global platform. In the article by (Eunhee, et al., 2015), the authors conduct an observational study to examine the effects of nurse staffing, work environment and education on patient mortality in South Korea. Their article indicates that nurse staffing alongside nurse work environments and high education (Bachelor of Science in Nursing Degree) in South Korea has a huge impact on patient mortality.

In the United States of America and Europe, nurse staffing has been identified as a strength in patient recovery and reduction of mortality. The considerable amount of research work as evidenced by the works of (Shekelle, 2013) and (West, et al., 2014) is a positive indication of the awareness of proper nursing staff ratios. However, according to (Eunhee, et al., 2015), this is not the same in South Korea.
The subject of nursing staff ratios is one that needs proper attention from authorities. In the article Voice- Now is the Time to Push for Safe Staffing Ratios by (Osborne, 2015), there is a plight for the UK political parties to rally behind safe nurse staffing. (Osborne, 2015) appeals with the 650 members of parliament in the UK to push more towards enabling safe staffing ratios as this will not only benefit the nurses but also the patients to a great deal.
This paper has reviewed the most relevant literature when it comes to discussion of nurse staffing ratios. As evidenced by the works of (Eunhee, et al., 2015), (Osborne, 2015), (Shekelle, 2013) and (West, et al., 2014), there is a huge impact on patient outcomes which is dependent on the staffing ratios. Where there is proper patient is to nurse ratio, there is a healthy balance and patients are likely to respond much better than in cases where nurses are under staffed.