Surfing is one of the oldest sporting activities that still attract great admiration and support from both recreational and professional surfers around the world.

With its history dating back to the ancient Polynesian culture, surfing has developed from an ‘elite’ sport for the ruling class to what is commonly a favorite pastime and professional sporting activity for individuals of all ages and backgrounds. The development of modern surfing at the start of the 20th century increased innovations, and immense public exposure is credited with efforts to promote tourism in most of the regions where the game is practiced.
History and Development of Surfing
Several studies have noted that surfing began around AD 1000, with the ancient Hawaiian peoples riding carved-out koa tree as a cultural phenomenon, mainly practiced by the members of the ruling class. The centrality of surfing in the Polynesian culture marked an integral point in the development of the sport not merely as a recreational activity, but also one that is deeply integrated into their culture as an art. Historians suggest that the spread of surfing to other locations was made possible by the migration of pacific islands from Haiti, Indonesia, Tahiti, and Fiji (Finney & Houston, 1996). Following European contact with the indigenous people in the early 19th century, surfing began to develop two other regions?a factor that contributed to innovations and the popularity of the sport in North America, Australia, and Europe (Almond, 2009). In the mid 1920s, Duke Kahanamoku, a Waterman and an Olympic medalist and other influential professional surfers, played a critical role in the development of the sport to other regions of the world. Until the 1960s, surfing was mainly centralized in three locations, namely Hawaii, California, and Australia. The increased portrayal of the sport in films marked a key step in increasing public exposure, and one that also triggered increased interest on the part of scholars, scientists, and other groups whom through innovations and research have greatly contributed to the modern status of the game. Though started in the mid-60s, professional surfing gained much prominence in the 1970s after the development of tow-in surfing, which became popular among big-wave surfers.
Founded in 1968, the International Professional Surfers (IPS) assumed a significant role in the promotion of the sport through global pro tours, which included some of the famous surfers at that time (Diel & Menges, 2008). While the IPS group took a central position in promoting surfing through prize-money events, such efforts were undermined by lack of resource to allow adequate preparation for the events. In 1982, the Association of Surfing Professionals assumed the major administrative duties from the IPS, a move that led to further development of surfing as a professional sport. Popular surfing events during the 1990s, including the Billabong Pro, Pipeline Masters, and the Op Pro displayed the most progressive surfing, which is believed to have set the pace for the development of modern surfing (Diel & Menges, 2008).
There is a wide range of equipment for surfing, including surfboards, Bodyboards, stand up Paddleboards, Kneeboards, surf mats and Kneeboards. For beginners, a surfboard, a wetsuit, and a leash is most preferred for both safety and enjoyment. These surfboards are required to be long, thick, and wide to give both buoyancy and to enable faster paddling thus making it possible for the surfer to catch the wave easily. A wider width also enables the surfer to gain extra stability when standing up without compromising mobility. Other equipments include a surf wax, fins, traction pads, and board wears (Almond, 2009).